Monday, July 22, 2019
Romeo Juliet Essay Romeo and Juliet is true story written as a play, by William Shakespeare in the Elizabethan time in the 17th Century. This was the period when young girls which was classed as young women and the roles of women was limited, especially those that were rich was never seen outdoors, when venturing outside it was a lot more limited, had private tutoring, educating them to a very high standard and everything would be brought to them, as Juliet in the play is to confined to protect her virginity. This was when woman were owned by fathers then suitable husbands, which were expected to accept. The tradition was Courtney Love, when a man, often a knight, had to woo (gently persuade) a lady to be his love. This sometimes meant singing to her beneath her balcony. She was supposed to play it very cool for a while, as Juliet says she ought to in this scene. It was all sort of a game. The play is about a boy and a girl who fall in love, but remains to keep it secret of their family feud. There is a lot of use of imagery language in the play, one of the example is the balcony scene, where Romeo comes to find Juliet after the party and find her in her balcony. This is at night, where the darkness makes them feel safe, somewhere they can truly be alone. At the balcony scene where Romeo meets Juliet for the second time, he talks about how Juliet is so pretty she is and how she is beautiful than the moon itself the envious moon, this is a simile because he is saying the moon is jealous as it is a symbol of chastity. By saying that it gives us an image of Juliet more beautiful than the moon, so Juliet must seem to be glowing making the night light and bright. The balcony scene is when the audience is shown that the live is real and eternal. Another image of light and darkness is Juliets sun, people cant live without the sun so Romeo cant live without Juliet , so metaphorically Romeo is saying she lightens up the world for Romeo. I think the two images are very powerful, but to be used after only knowing each other after somewhat of couple hours is rather extreme and exaggeration, so at this point I dont find this convincing at all towards the idea of the two are in love. The images of love are as strong as those of light and dark, the first is, Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love And Ill no longer be a Capulet Juliet claims that she will lose her identity if he swears to lobe her, she here gives us an imagery of a big sacrifice because they loves each other, but this to me, I wonder if it is really is that simple? I think the couple dont need to worry about the name; it shouldnt matter if they love each other. A name would be perfectly insignificant, Juliet denies the reality of the situation which is she will never be allowed to marry Romeo because of the feud of the two families, so Romeo and Juliet love must remain secret, so the imagery she uses shows us that thus live cannot and does not survive on earth, which all turns the situation into somewhat of a fairytale. They do die soon later in the play, so this scene shows the audience that it is a special love. Another imagery of love is when Romeo goes on to claim that love can help him to perform such features as climbing tall walls-With loves light wing did I operch these walls, For stony limits cannot hold love out. This again is a metaphor, which is very unrealistic, a feeling cannot give you power to fly, but it is aright for the couples in love. Their love goes beyond the earth, almost heavenly. However, Romeo is flirting with her, not giving her direct truthful responses. Later he uses the word love four times. He talks of love as a actual person. He believes their love to b strong that he personifies it. As if he has brought them together. When asked how he found the garden, he actually describes the personified love as someone hes in partnership with. He gives love extra power. With loves live wings did I oeroperch these walls, For stony limits cannot hols love out; And what love can do, that dares love attempt; Therefore thy kinsmen are no stop to me. Juliet declares in line 133, that her bounty is as boundless as the sea, this is metaphorical term, saying about her generosity. The love she has to give him is so great, not even the sea can obstruct it, the term giving Juliets live somewhat of a infinite quality and eternal. This is off course is unrealistic, but it is similar to Elizabethan voyage of discovery to the new world, to seek out the worlds end, this is yet not found therefore Juliets love is the same, boundless Other images are of birds, Shakespeare the, changes mood when Juliet talks of birds and captivity. We now see interesting images, shown by Juliet, Hist, Romeo, hist! O for a falconers voice, To lure this tassel-gentle back again. Juliet trying to get Romeo to come back to her, she uses the language of falconry, which was an extremely popular sport with the Elizabethan nobility. A tassel was a high-prized male peregrine, this suggest that she feels confident as falconer to her very own, tassel-gentle, Romeo, it is unusual to see her like this in her age. Juliet is dominating the situation. She changes in two days from a little girl to a women, it shows her strength of character, her determination and her love. So I think this is very successful in making the audience realise the two are in love. On the other hand , we have an image of a spoilt child possessing a pet-And yet no farther than a wantons bird, Who lets it hop a little from her hand, Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gives, This gives us and image of Juliet holding Romeo by a string, and she has control of him, as she can pluck him back whenever she wishes, and gyves are prisoner with ropes and chain, this is the case that Juliet is a controlling female, could be of the high standard of her rich life, who is obsessed with Romeo and enjoys having him, whenever she favours, in a little fantasy of hers. For conclusion, I think in the balcony scene, many different images were shown although there were few actual images, which was effective in convincing the audience that the two are in love. There were only few realistic images, whereas unrealistic images present us with unlikely ideas such as Juliets sun, where the audience was given the idea that she was the light to the world. The image of angels might have been used to symbolise that the couple is not meant to be in earth, a little hint from Shakespeare, but overall I think there was enough images and idea given to back up the love of Romeo and Juliet.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Oscilloscope The most useful instrument INTRODUCTION Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): An oscilloscope is easily the most useful instrument available for testing circuits because it allows you to see the signals at different points in the circuit. The best way of investigating an electronic system is to monitor signals at the input and output of each system block, checking that each block is operating as expected and is correctly linked to the next. With a little practice, we will be able to find and correct faults quickly and accurately. The symbol for a CRO: The screen of a CRO is very similar to a TV, except it is much simpler. We will not go into the similarities except to say that the picture tube on a TV and the screen on a CRO are both a special type of valve called a Cathode Ray Tube. It is a vacuum tube with a cathode (negative electrode) at one end that emits electrons and anodes (positive electrodes) to accelerate the electron beam up/down and left/right to hit a phosphor coating at the end of the tube, called the screen. The electrons are called cathode rays because they are emitted by the cathode and this gives the oscilloscope its full name: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope or CRO. CRO IN DETAIL The main part of the C.R.O. is a highly evacuated glass tube housing parts which generates a beam of electrons, accelerates them, shapes them into a narrow beam, and provides external connections to the sets of plates for changing the direction of the beam. Internal Components K, an indirectly heated cathode which provides a source of electrons for the beam by boiling them out of the cathode. P, the anode (or plate) which is circular with a small central hole. The potential of P creates an electric field which accelerates the electrons, some of which emerge from the hole as a fine beam. This beam lies along the central axis of the tube. G, the grid. Controlling the potential of the grid controls the number of electrons for the beam, and hence the intensity of the spot on the screen where the beam hits. F, the focusing cylinder. This aids in concentrating the electron beam into a thin straight line much as a lens operates in optics. X, Y, deflection plate pairs. The X plates are used for deflecting the beam left to right (the x direction) by means of the ramp voltage. The Y plates are used for deflection of the beam in the vertical direction. Voltages on the X and Y sets of plates determine where the beam will strike the screen and cause a spot of light. S, the screen. This is coated on the inside with a material which fluoresces with green light (usually) where the electrons are striking. As well as this tube, there are several electronic circuits required to operate the tube, all within the C.R.O. along with the tube: A power supply, operated from the 110 volt 60 cycle per second electrical mains. This supply provides all the voltages required for the different circuits within the C.R.O. for operation of the tube. A sawtooth, or ramp signal generator which makes the spot move left to right on the screen. External controls for this circuit allow variation of the sweep width, and the frequency of the sweep signal. Because of the persistence of our vision, this sweep is often fast enough that what we see on the screen is a continuous horizontal line. Amplifiers for the internally generated ramp signal, and for the unknown signal which we hook up to the C.R.O. for the purpose of displaying it. Shift devices which allow us to control the mean position of the beam; up or down, or left to right. The synchroniser circuit. This circuit allows us to synchronise the unknown signal with the ramp signal such that the resulting display is a nice clear signal like a snapshot of the unknown voltage vs. time. C.R.O. Operation: Typical front-panel controls Front Panel On-off switch. INTENS. This is the intensity control connected to the grid G to control the beam intensity and hence the brightness of the screen spots. Dont run the intensity too high, just bright enough for clear visibility. Always have the spot sweeping left to right or the beam may burn a hole in the screen. FOCUS allows you to obtain a clearly defined line on the screen. POSITION allows you to adjust the vertical position of the waveform on the screen. (There is one of these for each channel). AMPL/DIV. is a control of the Y (i.e. vertical) amplitude of the signal on the screen.(There is one of these for each channel). AC/DC switch. This should be left in the DC position unless you cannot get a signal on-screen otherwise. (There is one of these for each channel). AB/ADD switch. This allows you to display both input channels separately or to combine them into one. +/- switch. This allows you to invert the B channel on the display. Channel A input Channel B input X POSITION these allow you to adjust the horizontal position of the signals on the screen. LEVEL this allows you to determine the trigger level; i.e. the point of the waveform at which the ramp voltage will begin in time base mode. ms/Ã µs This defines the multiplication factor for the horizontal scale in timebase mode. (See 15 below.) MAGN The horizontal scale units are to be multiplied by this setting in both timebase and xy modes. To avoid confusion, leave it at x1 unless you really need to change it. Time/Div This selector controls the frequency at which the beam sweeps horizontally across the screen in time base mode, as well as whether the oscilloscope is in timebase mode or xy (x VIA A) mode. This switch has the following positions: (a) X VIA A In this position, an external signal connected to input A is used in place of the internally generated ramp. (This is also known as xy mode.) (b) .5, 1, 2, 5, etc. Here the internally generated ramp voltage will repeat such that each large (cm) horizontal division corresponds to .5, 1, 2, 5, etc. ms. or Ã µs depending on the multiplier and magnitude settings. (Note also the x1/x5 switch in 14 above.) The following controls are for triggering of the scope, and only have an effect in timebase mode. A/B selector. This allows you to choose which signal to use for triggering. -/+ will force the ramp signal to synchronise its starting time to either the decreasing or increasing part of the unknown signal you are studying. INT/EXT This will determine whether the the ramp will be synchronised to the signal chosen by the A/B switch or by whatever signal is applied to the EXT. SYNC. input. (See 21 below.) AC/TV selectors. Ive never figured out what this does; find whichever position works. External trigger input INTRODUCTION FUNCTION GENERATOR A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. It is used to test the response of circuits to common input signals. The electrical leads from the device are attached to the ground and signal input terminals of the device under test. Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape of the output from a small number of options. Square wave The signal goes directly from high to low voltage. Sine wave The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage. Triangle wave The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate. The amplitude control on a function generator varies the voltage difference between the high and low voltage of the output signal. The direct current (DC) offset control on a function generator varies the average voltage of a signal relative to the ground. The frequency control of a function generator controls the rate at which output signal oscillates. On some function generators, the frequency control is a combination of different controls. One set of controls chooses the broad frequency range (order of magnitude) and the other selects the precise frequency. This allows the function generator to handle the enormous variation in frequency scale needed for signals. The duty cycle of a signal refers to the ratio of high voltage to low voltage time in a square wave signal. FUNCTION OF FUNCTION GENERATOR Analog function generators usually generate a triangle waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangle is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source. This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp. As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave. By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different frequencies may be obtained. A 50% duty cycle square wave is easily obtained by noting whether the capacitor is being charged or discharged, which is reflected in the current switching comparators output. Most function generators also contain a non-linear diode shaping circuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably accurate sine wave. It does so by rounding off the hard corners of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio systems. The type of output connector from the device depends on the frequency range of the generator. A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz and uses a BNC connector, usually requiring a 50 or 75 ohm termination. Specialised RF generators are capable of gigahertz frequencies and typically use N-type output connectors. Function generators, like most signal generators, may also contain an attenuator, various means of modulating the output waveform, and often the ability to automatically and repetitively sweep the frequency of the output waveform (by means of a voltage-controlled oscillator) between two operator-determined limits. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the frequency response of a given electronic circuit. Some function generators can also generate white or pink noise. More advanced function generators use Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) to generate waveforms. Arbitrary waveform generators use DDS to generate any waveform that can be described by a table of amplitude values. REFERENCE http://www.doctronics.co.uk/scope.htm http://www.9h1mrl.org/workshop/CRO-Ebook-1/html/CRO-P1-Intro.html http://denethor.wlu.ca/pc200/scope/oscilloscope.pdf http://cnx.org/content/m11895/latest/
The Chomsky On Language Acquisitions English Language Essay One of the greatest linguists of all times, Noam Chomsky asserts that language is innate. He wrote his famous book, Language and Mind in 1972, in which he proposed his famous theories onÃ language acquisition. In this book Chomsky wrote, When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the human essence, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man. According to Chomsky, language is one characteristic that is unique to humans among all other living beings. Chomskys theories have made it easier to understand the evolution and development of the languages. Chomskys theories on language are based upon the importance of linguistics in modern sciences. According to him, to study languages, it is important study human nature that lies in human mind. Chomsky on Language Acquisition Noam Chomsky postulated that the mechanism of the language acquisition is derived from the innate processes. Innate is something which is already there in mind since birth. The theory proposed by Chomsky is proved by the children living in same linguistic community. Moreover, they are not influenced by the external experiences which bring about the comparable grammar. He thus proposed his theory on language acquisition in 1977 as all children share the same internal constraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are going to construct. He also proposed that all of us live in a biological world, and according to him, mental world is no exception. He also believes that as there are stages of development for other parts of the body,Ã language developmentÃ can also be achieved up to a certain age. Innatism: Noam Chomsky The linguist Noam Chomskys views have had a tremendous impact on language acquisition theory and research. Chomskys transformation-generative grammar (TG) approach differed substantially from previous views of language learning. For Chomsky, the essential rules of grammar (everything we know about our language: phonology, syntax, morphology, semantics, etc.) lie hidden in the abstract deep structure of language. Deep structure rules are universal. Its not what the environment brings to the child but what the child brings to the environment. Chomsky claimed that children are biologically programmed for language and that language develops in the child in just the same way that other biological functions develop. For example, every child will learn how to walk (if there is nothing wrong with the child). The child doesnt need to be taught. Most children learn to walk at about the same age. For Chomsky, language acquisition is very similar. The environment makes a basic contribution in this case, the availability of people who speak to the child. The childs biological endowment will do the rest. This is known as the innatist position. Chomsky proposed his theory in reaction to what he saw as the inadequacy of the behaviorist theory of learning based on imitation and habit formation. Evidence seems very strong that children are by no means systematically corrected or instructed on language. Have you ever tried to correct the grammar of a three-year-old? Not many parents have been observed correcting their toddlers or pre-schoolers grammatical errors. When parents do correct, research has shown, they tend to focus on meaning and not on language form, often simply repeating the childs incorrect utterance in a more complete grammatical form. When parents do correct errors, children often ignore the correction, continuing to use their own way of saying things. A Social Interaction Model of First Language Acquisition The foundation of all language, according to Vygotsky, is social interaction. Vygotsky originated the notion that the most fertile environment for all early learning, including child 4 language acquisition, is found in what he termed the Zone of Proximal Development. The relation between thought and word is a living person. In the Vygotskian approach, children attempt to communicate, and in these attempts they learn language. Social interaction creates many opportunities for children to acquire the necessary social features of their native language: they learn how to use speech in different contexts, and they acquire the ability to know what to say to whom, when, and where. Consider the acquisition of various forms of requests. The zone of proximal development creates many opportunities for English-speaking children to realize that a request such as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢gimmeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬- can work with younger playmates and some siblings but may not work successfully with mom and dad. Older children learn more complicated variations of requests, such as knowing that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢Wouldnt you like toÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬- is a more polite way of asking Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢WannaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬- Second Language Learning It is clear that a child or adult learning a second language is different than a child acquiring a first language, both in terms of personal characteristics and conditions for learning. Questions to consider when trying to understand how second language learners learn are: 1. Does the learner already know a language? 2. Is the learner cognitively mature? That is, is she or he able to engage in problem solving, deduction, and complex memory tasks? 3. How well developed is the learners metalinguistic awareness? That is, can the learner treat language as an object (for example, define a word, say what sounds make up that word, or state a rule such as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬-add an -s to form the plural)? 4. How extensive is the learners general knowledge of the world? This kind of knowledge makes it easier to understand language because one can sometimes make good guesses about what the speaker is probably saying even when the language carrying the message is new. 5. Is the learner nervous about making mistakes and sounding Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬-silly when speaking the language? 6. Does the learning environment allow the learner to be silent in the early stages of learning, or is he or she expected to speak from the beginning?5 7. Is there enough time available for language learning to take place, and is there plenty of contact with proficient speakers of the language? 8. Does the learner receive corrective feedback when he or she makes errors in grammar or pronunciation, or does the listener overlook these errors and pay attention to the message? 9. Does the learner receive corrective feedback when she or he uses the wrong word, or does the listener usually try to guess the intended meaning? 10. Is the learner exposed to language which is modified in terms of speed of delivery, complexity of grammatical structure, and vocabulary, so that it matches the learners ability to comprehend and interact? All second language learners, regardless of age, have by definition already acquired at least one language. This prior knowledge may be an advantage in the sense that the learner has an idea of how languages work. On the other hand, knowledge of other languages can also lead learners to make incorrect guesses about how the second language works, and this may cause errors which a first language learner would not make. Young language learners begin the task of language learning without the benefit of some of the skills and knowledge which adolescent and adult learners have. The first language learner does not have the same cognitive maturity, metalinguistic awareness, or world knowledge as older second language learners. Although they are developing cognitive maturity and metalinguistic awareness, they still have a long way to go in these areas, as well as in the area of world knowledge, before they reach the levels already attained by adults and adolescents. Most child learners do not feel nervous about attempting to use the language, even when their proficiency is quite limited. Adults and adolescents, on the other hand, often find it very stressful when they are unable to express themselves clearly and correctly. Nevertheless, even very young children (pre-school) children differ in their nervousness when faced with speaking a language they do not know well. Some children happily chatter away in their new language; others prefer to listen and participate silently in social interaction with their peers. Fortunately for these children, the learning environment rarely puts pressure on them to speak when they are not ready. One condition which appears to be common among learners of all ages though perhaps not in equal quantities is access to modified input. This adjusted speech style is sometimes called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬-foreigner talk or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬-teacher talk. Many people who interact regularly with language learners, such as experienced teachers, seem to have a sense of what adjustments are needed to help their learners understand. TheÃ Nativist Position The best known and most influential proponent of the innatist position isÃ NoamÃ Chomsky.Ã In his famousÃ review of Skinners bookÃ VerbalÃ BehaviorÃ he pointed out that imitation and SR-theories of learning fail to explain how people come to produce sentences which they never heard before. He argues that cognition plays the decisive part in creating the ability to produce an unlimited number of sentences with the knowledge of a limited number of grammatical rules. He calls this abilityÃ language competenceÃ and distinguishes it fromÃ performance, that is the actual use of language whichÃ under the heat of communicative exchanges or when people are tiredÃ may lead to the production of grammatically faulty sentences. Explaining language learning on a cognitive basis raises the question, however, how children come to know the categories and rules of grammar which they need for a creative production of sentences.Ã In that context the logical problem of language acquisition and the poverty of the input argument prompt researchers like Chomsky,Ã Fodor, andÃ Steven PinkerÃ to argue that languages are not learned like any other complex faculty (flying airplanes or doing complex mathematical calculations, for instance) but acquired on the basis of an innate knowledge of grammatical principles contained inÃ aÃ language acquisition device (LAD).Ã In later versions of Chomskyan theories the LAD is renamedÃ Universal Grammar.Ã The logical problem of language acquisition, which gave rise to the problematic distinction of language acquisition and learning,Ã is seen to lie in the fact that adult language generally is full of grammatically errors, unfinished sentences and similar handicaps w hich seem to make it impossible for the human brain/mind as a logical machine to extract from that sort of controversial input the right sort of grammatical rules. Observation of children and their parents reveals, too, that adults do not give children explicit instruction in rules of grammar (which would undo the logical problem of language acquisition). The protagonists of the nativist position of language acquisition aim to explainÃ first language acquisition, notÃ second language acquisition. Quite a few researchers in this camp doubt that UG (Universal Grammar) is available for second language acquisition. Some of them argue that UG may be available for second language acquisition up to a critical age only (early puberty) after which the plasticity of the brain would put an end to the beneficial workings of UG. We must remember, too, thatÃ second language acquisition (SLA)Ã is different fromÃ foreign language learning.SLA takes place in a target language environment and provides the learners with plenty of language input in contextually meaningful situations. In contrast foreign language learning takes place under extreme time limits in a first language cultural context and provides comparatively poor environmental conditions for language acquisition. Because of the reasons just mentioned it is problematic to directly connect nativist theories of language acquisition with new developments in FLT. The truth is, though, that nativist theories have definitely influenced theories on second language acquisition and they have indirectly had an effect on theories and methods in FLT. The perhaps most prominent example of such indirect influences and subterranean cross currents is the comprehensible input hypothesis developed byÃ Stephen Krashen. HisÃ theory of second language acquisition actually consists of five main hypotheses: 1. the acquisition-learning hypothesis, 2. the monitor hypothesis, 3. the natural order hypothesis, 4. the input hypothesis, and 5. the affective filter hypothesis. His position shares with nativist theories the learning acquisition dichotomy. The crucial point of his arguments is that grammar acquisition is an unconscious process which cannot really be helped or replaced by the teaching and conscious learni ng of explicit rules of grammar. What teachers can do to help their learners is make comprehensible the second language input which they provide because learners will find it easier to figure out the rules underlying the production of the input if they understand its meaning.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Toughest Bar to Cross Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The protagonist of “Crossbar'; has had his life altered violently and is now trying to cope with the effects of this great change. Aaron Kornylo is a champion high jumper until a piece of farm machinery severs his right leg and changes his life forever Now Aaron lives in anger, bitterly denying the inevitable: he must learn to accept his loss. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Until a farm accident changed his life forever, the young man of this story enjoyed the life of a world-class athlete. Before he was injured, Aaron Kornylo was one of the best high jumpers in Canadian sports history. He enjoyed the attention his victories brought him. Aaron recalls, “standing proud on the dais... being vested with his Commonwealth Games gold by Prince Charles himself'; (Gault 61). To Aaron it was a perfect life, or “his personal vision of the best of all possible worlds'; (Gaul 62). He was an accomplished athlete, “the best... Willow Creek had ever produced'; (Gault 62). Then people revered Aaron, and he was completely satisfied with his life. All of this changes abruptly and violently when a farming accident almost kills Aaron and necessitates the amputation of his leg. With his leg severed by a harvester, driven by his father, Aaron is continually haunted. He relives the incident through a nightmare of his: “first the noi se- the machine’s noise- would have to come, closer and closer and... then the pain, so terrible that the brain in it’s mysterious wisdom shut down the system... just after the scream'; (Gault 60). Forced to have his leg amputated, “the surgeons in Saskatoon had done a fine job, very neat... but he didn’t feel like giving [any] thanks'; (Gault 62). Looking down at “the rounded stump that had once been his right leg'; (Gault 62) Aaron would have no choice but to “get used to... that hated wooden leg'; (Gaul 62). The physical part of Aaron’s injury is the only visible sign of his problem, for this young man is now struggling with the prospect of life as an amputee. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã His life drastically altered by the loss of his right leg, Aaron will have to learn acceptance and place hope in his future. Aaron is presently having a difficult time coping- both physically and mentally. He does not and will not accept the loss of his leg. By thinking of his lost high jumping career Aaron is saddened: “wiping at his eyes, [he] opened them and returned to his room, to everything he had been and would never be again'; (Gault 61).
Friday, July 19, 2019
Plato discusses theories of knowledge throughout his famous dialogue, the Theaetetus. He discusses many different ways of learning and attempts to define knowledge. Plato does this through a conversation between a few characters: Socrates, the famous philosopher; Theodorus, an aged friend and philosopher of Socrates; and Theaetetus, a young man who is introduced to Socrates before a discussion. One aspect of knowledge which they review is perception. It is defined and explained by Socrates, to the young and innocent Theaetetus. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perception is defined by Floyd H. Allport in his book, Theories of Perception and the Concept of Structure, as Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to us, or the way they sound, feel, taste, or smell.Ã¢â¬ It is not the way things are exactly, but the way we see them; or because it involves all of the five senses, the way we perceive them. Perception is not restricted to sight only, the world has countless numbers of sounds, smells, and textures. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perception is Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to usÃ¢â¬ because even though something might seem to be one way, it is another. For example, the Muller-Lyer illusion makes people see two lines of different lengths, while the lines are the same size. This illustrates the fact that just because you perceive something to be a certain way does not mean that it is true. Truth and perception do not necessarily coincide. This is also true with belief. When seeing something that is too far fetched to be real, then you find it hard to believe. Perception is merely an Ã¢â¬Å"experience [which] is just a stage along the causal process leading to belief.Ã¢â¬ Perception is not truth or belief, but it is an important (however, not necessary) step to reaching them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Theaetetus, the three characters in the conversation have a discussion on perception and how it relates to the world. Plato recounts Socrates telling the young Theaetetus how, contrary to his belief, perception is not knowledge. Perception is too varied, Socrates says. He gives the example of a breeze blowing; one man can be made cold from the wind, while the man next to him might not be cold at all. The blowing wind is the same temperature, but as defined above, perception is Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to us. Perception And Plato's Theaetetus :: essays research papers Plato discusses theories of knowledge throughout his famous dialogue, the Theaetetus. He discusses many different ways of learning and attempts to define knowledge. Plato does this through a conversation between a few characters: Socrates, the famous philosopher; Theodorus, an aged friend and philosopher of Socrates; and Theaetetus, a young man who is introduced to Socrates before a discussion. One aspect of knowledge which they review is perception. It is defined and explained by Socrates, to the young and innocent Theaetetus. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perception is defined by Floyd H. Allport in his book, Theories of Perception and the Concept of Structure, as Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to us, or the way they sound, feel, taste, or smell.Ã¢â¬ It is not the way things are exactly, but the way we see them; or because it involves all of the five senses, the way we perceive them. Perception is not restricted to sight only, the world has countless numbers of sounds, smells, and textures. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perception is Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to usÃ¢â¬ because even though something might seem to be one way, it is another. For example, the Muller-Lyer illusion makes people see two lines of different lengths, while the lines are the same size. This illustrates the fact that just because you perceive something to be a certain way does not mean that it is true. Truth and perception do not necessarily coincide. This is also true with belief. When seeing something that is too far fetched to be real, then you find it hard to believe. Perception is merely an Ã¢â¬Å"experience [which] is just a stage along the causal process leading to belief.Ã¢â¬ Perception is not truth or belief, but it is an important (however, not necessary) step to reaching them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Theaetetus, the three characters in the conversation have a discussion on perception and how it relates to the world. Plato recounts Socrates telling the young Theaetetus how, contrary to his belief, perception is not knowledge. Perception is too varied, Socrates says. He gives the example of a breeze blowing; one man can be made cold from the wind, while the man next to him might not be cold at all. The blowing wind is the same temperature, but as defined above, perception is Ã¢â¬Å"the way things look to us.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Throughout the past couple of centuries, our world has changed over a period of time. Everything has changed; generations, the way we live, nature and so much more. History is created every day, and at every moment without even realizing it. Our culture is a huge part of our everyday environment that we do not realize how incredibly significant they influence our lives. There are many important elements that have changed American society; for example the television. Television can be used as a tool to motivate learning and to increase awareness of public issues. Social Interaction, education, culture, and criminal exposure are some of the key reasons to why the television has played a significant role in our lives. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern culture, television has played a big role throughout peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s every day lives. We depend on TV for entertainment, news, education, culture, weather, sports, and so much more. Without the TV, our social interaction percentage would be low; because of the lack of topics. People these days, talk about TV shows, movies, and more, and without it, a lot of people would be anti social. While television is often criticized for isolating people, it can also bring them together. For example, Super Bowl parties and other events in which people congregate around the TV. During the month-long telecast of March Madness, fans gather at work, in bars and other places to compare brackets, view college basketball games, and discuss the results. In addition, some TV shows invite viewers to share their opinions by calling in or posting comments. Televisions have influenced education and teaching practices. Educators have had to adapt and provide lessons that not only educate but entertain the learner. It has been shown that attention spans have decreased since the prominence of television. Reading is not seen in the same esteem as in previous generations. Studies have shown that public television programs emphasize literacy development. Using engaging characters and interesting stories, shows like Ã¢â¬Å"Sesame Street,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Sid the Science Kid,Ã¢â¬ motivate children to learn, while other specialty channels, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Animal PlanetÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery ChannelÃ¢â¬ , also provide educational content in an entertaining way. Television also provides cultural experiences, which can help broaden viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives and increase tolerance and appreciation for different lifestyles.TV has the ability to create powerful capabilities, TV allows people especially adolescents to share cultural experience with one another. Shows like Ã¢â¬Å"National Geographic,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"House Hunters International,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Amazing Race,Ã¢â¬ focus on life in parts of the world that may be unfamiliar to most Americans. Even shows that concentrate their efforts in the U.S., such as Ã¢â¬Å"Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"House Hunters,Ã¢â¬ can improve cultural awareness by highlighting the foods, housing trends and customs in different regions of the country. Lastly, the impact of television also serves to expose criminal activity. According to a 2011 article in Ã¢â¬ TimeÃ¢â¬ magazine, the television show Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Wanted,Ã¢â¬ was Ã¢â¬Å"an unprecedented collaboration between law enforcement and television,Ã¢â¬ and led to the capture of 1,154 fugitives as a result of phone tips from TV viewers. Kevin Perkins, an assistant director of the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal investigation division told Ã¢â¬Å"Time,Ã¢â¬ the agency captured 17 of its most highly-ranked fugitives and also solved over 550 cases as a result of TV viewer tips. Perkins also says that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve captured suspects within minutes of an episode airing on TV. Also the news; today these days, there are many news channels to inform us on what is happening around the world. Without the news, we would often wonder what is happening, despite the advantage of also having social media,it is often not reliable nor true. References: Time.com: The End of AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Wanted: Good News for Criminals, Bad News for the FBI. To conclude., throughout the past hundred of years, our world has changed over a period of time; generations, the way we live, nature, and more. History is created ever day, and at every moment without even realizing it. Our culture is a huge part of our every day environment that we do not realize how incredibly significant they influence our lives. One important element; the television has changed American society. Social Interaction, education, culture, and criminal exposure are some of the key reasons to whyÃ the television has played a significant role in our lives. Without the television, our generation would be a lot different.
rent and revise skills information This section covers the following opinions and natural An basis to adjustment methods, including conception single-valued functionping, ? ow charts and sound judgment single-valued functions be after revision timing practising query technique. cosmopolitan pack methods Organisation of necessitate clipping The straitss atomic issue forth 18 looming large. Suddenly you realise that you do consider your nones and experimental educate from the extreme year or two. Are they in slap-up shape? Well It is exp expiryiturey commending that revision is just that. It shouldnt be the first prison term that you direct tried to push back to grips with a subject.Organisation of study habits over a whole feed in is a vital part of being successful. This certainly import applicative things, ofttimes(prenominal) as reservation real that your nones atomic proceeds 18 intact and readable. except it in any case includes m aking legitimate that you rack up up understood the sentiments and connections as you sacrifice covered a payoff. null stinkpot be worse than act to watch pop step up masses of veridical that you get dressedt construe. The exceed preparation for an examination begins a long time in advance it This spreads the load and lessens the tension as the examination approaches. name 1 summarises diverse aspects of preparing for examinations.The wrangle prevail arm emphasises not only the collection of good notes directly from come apart, but withal the need to account at and demand use of temporal from outside. Reading reference material and fetching useable notes from it is a skill in itself. Table 1 outlines variant methods of meter interlingual rendition and their purpose. The first deuce-ace methods ar oftentimes appropriate to victimization books for reference. However, on that point is an change magnitude number of popular science books and magazin es for which the hold water two methods ar appropriate. In addition, t present is an increasing come up of reference material now available on compact disc read-only memory and, almost signifi hobotly, the internet.You should irritate up peerlesss mastermind expressive styles of employ this material, as it shows a more interactive presentation of the material. The ability to direct notes and guinea pig summaries as you work done a course is grand, as they basin therefore be utilize as a starting point for revision. You should not guess of practical work in interpersonal chemis exertion as separate from impertinent(prenominal) classwork. The ideas and exact information from the practicals atomic number 18 central in reinforcing your reasonableness of a topic. Indeed, a finicky experiment may e real last(predicate)eviate you to echo and go steady a crucial idea giving you a visual cue quiver on which to hang the idea in your memory. Cambridge Universit y arouse IGCSE chemic science bring and revision skills 1 instruction CD-ROM practical work classnotes COURSEWORK review cards digest sheets Information how much? when? spider diagrams Or gan isin topic lists mind maps gn ote s O n rga g isin tim e present breaks REVISION SKILLS use a timetable u St sk ill divulge words and ideas s dy bi ha stick to timetable or y ts M em suitable hindquarters regular reviews use summaries, spider diagrams and mind maps anatomy 1 Revision directs organisation and the stupefyment of ill-tempered skills. alone or with a completely(prenominal)y ime of day Type of read shave s faecal enumeratening reflective reading sleuthing bias reading for plea veritable rule looking for the chief(prenominal) topics looking for proper(postnominal) information reading c arfully and thoughtfully, with financial forethought to detail separating fact from opinion reading at own pace suggest to relieve oneself an over exclusively characterisa tion to find event facts or conclusions to obtain a tho unmown judgment of a topic to form a decided impression of a controversial atomic number 18a to grasp a feel for a subject, and for diversion Table 1 Different methods of reading and their purpose.This book, and the accompanying materials, ar aimed specifically at students victorious the Cambridge IGCSE chemistry course. This is a course and qualification with a actually eminent international reputation. 2 Cambridge University disturb IGCSE chemical science regard and revision skills selective information on that point is an excellent website for Cambridge IGCSE students, at www. cambridgestudents. org. uk/subjectpages/chemistry/igcsechemistry Do take a good look at this website. You lead ? nd copies of erst art object(prenominal) write document, model answers to knightly questions, some simulations, and revision checklists based on the class.The tips from examiners ar there to jockstrap you do well in t he exam and are certainly worth taking note of. The website is worth visit regularly, as new material and up-to-date papers are added to it. Getting started We have said it earlier, and it arouse be drilling to repeat it, but it remains consecutive all the uniform to make sure of a high grade in your final examinations you allow need to work hard throughout your course. Here are some tips to help you make the best use of the time you put in on your work in chemistry. crystallize sure you have a imitation of the IGCSE interpersonal chemistry syllabus.There is one provided on this CD which also gives you guidance as to where in the book the distinct topics are covered. It is all-important(prenominal) you know the course you are taking and the way in which you go away(predicate) be assessed. IGCSE exams arent just round development facts. You need to be able to understand your work and become sufficiently reassured in your understanding to answer questions closely thing s you have never met before. You need to be able to transfer your knowledge in a particular area to an framework that give be unfamiliar to you.The IGCSE examiners exit be setting questions to streak three sets of skills (they are known as legal opinion Objectives). These are Skill A knowledge with understanding Skill B treatment information and solving problems Skill C experimental skills and investigations. About 50% of all the marks in the exam are for skill A, 30% for skill B and 20% for skill C. Skill A is nearly learning and understanding all the facts and concepts in the syllabus. These are covered in your textbook, and your teacher ordain make sure you have met them all in class as your course progresses.There are no crafty shortcuts, it is plain a ride of getting your head big bucks and operative at these. Skill B is about victimization these facts and concepts and takeing them to an unfamiliar context. Its important that you become confident in tackling qu estions that, at first sight, look completely new. The workbook entrust give you lots of practice at this. correcting past question papers will also help to test this skill, but there will hushed be unusual material that you will meet for the first time in the exam. The following model exam question is similar to the type of question strand on an extended paper and will give you some idea of what to expect.Cathodic bulwark of sword objects is not mentioned in the syllabus whereas sacrificial aegis is. Yet here you are asked to compare the two using your knowledge and understanding of electrolysis. Skill C is about practical skills. You should have mickle of opportunity to do experiments in a laboratory throughout your course. The workbook also has exercises that will help you to improve your skills at handling and interpreting data obtained from experiments, and designing experiments. But make sure you gain the most you tail assembly from your practical sessions.Chapter 12 gives you release guidance about what is involved in the assessment of your practical work. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry check and revision skills 3 computer simulation Q Questions For relevant material, go across Chapter 9. Titanium is very resistant to corrosion. One of its uses is as an electrode in the cathodic vindication of large steel structures from rusting. + power steel fossil oil deceiver which is cathode titanium anode seawater contains H+(aq), OH(aq), Na+(aq), Cl (aq) a Define oxidization and step- protrude in terms of negatron transfer.Oxidation is the departure of electrons Reduction is the gain of electrons malarkey flirt with OIL RIG to help remember oxidation is loss step-down is gain 2 b The steel oil rig is the prejudicious electrode (cathode) in this overprotective electrolytic arrangement. Name the gas form at this electrode. Hydrogen HINT acquittance of H+ ions from the seawater. 1 c Name one of the two possible gases formed at the titanium anode. Oxygen (or chlorine) HINT set free of OH? ions or Cl? from the seawater. 1 d con acquiree why the oil rig does not rust.T oil rig legs are the cathode in the cell that is set up (see diagram)he and oxidation does not take place at the cathode (electrons are moving towards the cathode, not away from it). HINT See Chapter 4 oxidation takes place at the anode in electrolysis reduction takes place at the cathode. Do not confuse this with sacri? cial protective covering. 2 e Another way of protecting steel from corrosion that involves using another metal is sacrificial protection. crumple two differences in the midst of sacrificial protection and cathodic protection.Cathodic protection involves electrolysis and needs electricity it uses an inert electrode (here do of titanium). sacrificial protection needs a more antiphonal metal this metal corrodes instead of the steel. Sacrificial protection does not need electricity. f What is the name of the method of rust protection that uses zinc? Galvanisation 2 1 4 Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills charge up progress During the course you will be given work to do. Try to work steadily through all the necessary material throughout your course. It is genuinely important that you keep up with this.Dont set out to make manners difficult for yourself. Do make sure that you understand each piece of work you do. Research sharpens that we find it much easier to learn and remember things if we understand them. If there is something you dont understand, make sure you do everything you brook to put this right unfeigned away. Quite often working through a topic with a ally will help. Use your school library or the internet. Be careful of the internet, though, as many chemistry sites are write for other courses in divergent countries. These give the gate use divers(prenominal) approaches and it is difficult to apply the explanations you see.Ask your teacher for a (short) list of genuine sites you can go to regularly. Strategies of study Your study sessions should use a variety of techniques to aid your understanding and learning of the material. Simply reading over your notes is not a in particular productive strategy. Try to summarise topics as you read, then shorten the summary down to a set of key words. Having learnt these, try to reconstruct notes on the topic. Your learning and understanding can also be check out and developed by answering questions from past examination papers. Keep the length of time taken to answer questions in mind when testing yourself.There is no point in preparing over-elaborate answers to short questions. An important aspect of understanding a topic is to see the connections amidst the ideas involved. Establishing these links makes it so much easier to remember the details of a topic. Pictorial methods of linking ideas can be very utilitarian for this. INFO The methods available include ?ow chart s concept maps Venn diagrams mind maps. The importance of all these methods is that they force us to sort out the material into key ideas, and then to establish the links mingled with them.It is expedient to draw up the diagrams for yourself. Remember that your maps may well differ from other peoples. Comparing notes with others, or nevertheless design them up unitedly as a group, can also be very useful. Sharing ideas and comparing maps helps you to speak out things through. As you use these methods, you will develop greater skill in drawing them up. Flow charts are linear in their approach and work down from a major idea by a series of subdivisions. They are useful for emphasising the varied types of chemical affection, for example (see examples of charts in Chapters 2 and 3 in the textbook).Concept maps and mind maps are particularly useful for helping you to see the full point of ideas. In a concept map ( innovation 2), the interlinking idea is written alongside the co nnecting arrow. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills 5 a electrocution neutralisation precipitation synthesis oxidation-reduction are types of a catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction can be written down as a word or emblemization equation word n tio equa sym bo equa l tion example zinc + oxygen zinc oxide 2Zn + O2 2ZnO these are sections this is a compound this means this means 2 atoms of zinc 1 molecule of oxygen is the process that validatory ions undergo at the cathode during is the gain of ELECTROLYSIS transferred during ELECTRONS is the loss of is the opposite process to is the process that negative ions undergo at the anode during process used to extract metals in the fervency FURNACE step-down redox OXIDATION is a special form of is the opposite process to is the removal of is the addition of COMBUSTION OXYGEN element removed from metal ores by degree centigrade in manakin 2 a Spider diagrams, and b concept maps involve organisi ng ideas and their connections. reactions in which substances react withVenn diagrams are useful for covering where different categories overlap. For example, the different ship canal in which we categorise reactions can moderate in overlaps. var. 3 shows this. It also shows how the term redox reaction covers a large range of reactions. 6 Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills neutralization reaction acid + base/alkali salt + water ONLY PRECIPITATION forming an water-insoluble solid by a chemical reaction sodium thiosulfate + hydrochloric acid REDOX Synthesis Decomposition to elements Electrolysis Displacement Figure 3 A Venn diagram showing various types of reaction.Can you think of examples to ? ll each blank space? (One has been done for you. ) Figure 4 shows a mind map covering aspects of the nature of atoms and molecules. This particular map covers a wide range of ideas radiating from the central idea that matter is made up of very min uscule particles (atoms or molecules, depending on the substance being talked about). The interconnections of ideas are emphasised. Putting the map on paper helps you to sort out your ideas There are obviously overlaps amongst different topics. There are various pieces of mind-mapping software available (one was sed to construct Figure 4) and you can find these on the internet. However, it is important not to get over-involved in the processes of a particular IT package. In many ship canal the important thing about mind-mapping is that it can be practised quite casually, and frequently, simply on a piece of rough paper. Sketching different mind maps on different topics is a way of looking at the subject from different angles to aid the memory. The main point is the thinking that is done while constructing the map. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills 7 escribes the states of matter and the movement of particles in these states the particles in matte r are moving all the time ion init de f different substances contain different types of particles, e. g. atoms, ions or molecules Kinetic scheme all matter is made up of very small particles the higher the temperature, the higher the average push of the particles Diffusion does not take place in solids heavier particles move more slow than lighter particles at the alike(p) temperature much slower in liquids than gases often nil given out various types, e. g. synthesis and decomposition usually not slow reversibleATOMS AND MOLECULES new chemical substances formed chemical substance reactions e. g. melting or dissolving physiological changes Daltons idea easily reversible, e. g. by cooling or evaporating no new chemical substances made Atomic theory atoms of different elements can combine to make the molecules of a compound a dainty element contains only atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus atoms of an element are each given their own symbol atoms are the small est particles that take part in a chemical reaction the atoms of the different elements differ in size Figure 4 A mind map on atoms and molecules. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills (isotopes) (nucleus) (nuclear reactions) (balanced equations) animal(prenominal) properties depend on how the atoms are relate together (atoms can be subdivided) everything is made from about cytosine elements, each made up of different atoms everything is made of invisibly small atoms, linked together in different prototypes everything can be made from a a couple of(prenominal) substances combined in different slipway structures weigh the same as the bestow mass of their split the total amount of matter stays the same (by mass) during chemical changes mount of matter stays the same (by atom count) during chemical changes chemical combinations of substances have different properties visible objects may be made of large numbers of very small invisible particles s ubstances have physical properties magnifiers and microscopes often show that objects are made of smaller parts small parts can be put together in different ways to make different things water evaporates into the air all materials come from somewhere and must(prenominal) go somewhere PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES COMMON ELEMENTS ATOMS ARE invisibly SMALL CONSERVATION OF MATTERKEY Scientific ideas more than general notions Storylines Figure 5 The different storylines behind the maps branch into each other. Figure 5 shows how several storylines can be linked together. This type of diagram can help you see the overall pattern of a section of the course you are taking and begin to see the connections surrounded by ideas. The more connections, or associations, you can make between ideas, the more likely you are to understand and remember them. When a particular part of a course, or a particular topic, is finished it can be useful to produce a delineate summary.This helps reinforce the lin ked ideas while they are still fresh in your mind. The charts can provide a useful checklist when it comes to revision. The near three charts (Figure 6a,b,c) show how parts of a course can be summarised. Figure 6a summarises a great deal of the material covered in Chapters 2 and 3, and Figures 6b and 6c flow into each other and show how much of chemistry develops from a consideration of the universes resources. This map of chemistry provides a context for your studies. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills 9 a SOLIDS LIQUIDS gas pedalESCHEMISTRY partitioning ONE PARTICLES ATOMS MOLECULES IONS ATOMIC STRUCTURE proton number Z mass number A PROTONS ELECTRONS ORBITS (2,8,8) PROTONS +NEUTRONS NEUTRONS = AZ p + 1 n o 1 e EQUATIONS and CALCULATIONS Balancing Mr from Ar + % Quantities from equations Solids and gases Formulae from % Data set aside doULAE 1 1840 CHEMICAL BONDS FORMING IONS Metals lose electrons Non-metals gain electrons GROUP 1 THE ALK ALI METALS chemical reaction with piss Storage rollicksman down group Density m. p. IONIC covalent SHARING ELECTRONS GROUP 7 THE HALOGENS reaction with iron Displacement Colour Variation down group m. . TRANSITION METALS nonreversible compounds Catalysts High m. p. s NOBLE GASES No reactions Coloured lights METALS NON-METALS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Malleable Conductors blind drunk High m. p. Shiny Alloys BURNING IN AIR and OXYGEN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES unannealed Poor conductors Low m. p. Dull reactivity OF METALS BASIC OXIDES ACIDIC OXIDES Figure 6 a, b, c Flow charts can show very clearly the links between different areas of chemistry and help provide an overall pattern to a course. 10 Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills b CHEMISTRY SECTION TWOALKALIS raw material Oxides + Water CHEMICAL REACTIONS ACIDS Acidic Oxides + Water REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS AIR neutralization H + +OH H2O BONDS BREAK and FORM pee ACID POTASSIUM sodium 14 pH weak WE AK STRONG pH STRONG virgin SUBSTANCES 8 6 1 quick Rapid BANG ENERGY shift CALCIUM Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry milligram Quite Quick Rapid WATER pH7 SALT ALUMINIUM ZINC sulphate Sulfuric Acid CHLORIDE Hydrochloric Acid process Nitric Acid disinclined fight down with Steam Slow IRON heat-absorbing Energy used and taken in EXOTHERMIC Energy produced and given out COPPER No Very Slow REVERSIBLE REACTIONS Can go some(prenominal) waysSILVER No GOLD No N2 + 3H2 2NH3 teddy REACTIONS RATE(Speed) OF REACTION responses happen when particles collide. BUT they must collide hard enough. more than collisions or harder collisions = Faster reaction. More reactive metals squeeze out Less reactive metals from their compounds. BIG divergence = FAST REACTION TEMPERATURE ALL REACTIONS higher(prenominal) Temp Faster Particles Harder Collisions Faster Reaction Faster Reaction More Collisions More Particles More Conc REACTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS REACTIONS WITH SOLIDS Small Pieces More grow More Collisions Faster Reaction tautness SURFACE AREACATALYST SOME REACTIONS Catalyst not used up. Less energy requisite More collisions succeed Study and revision skills ENZYMES Special Biological Catalysts in quick things. 11 c 12 BAUXITE thrill Crust HEMATITE REDUCTION MALACHITE BLAST FURNACE ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN OXIDE ALUMINIUM IRON slaked lime O2 STEEL CHEMISTRY SECTION deuce-ace THE EARTH RAW MATERIALS N2 AIR O2 carbonic acid gas WATER H2O Photosynthesis Breathing pyrogenic LIMESTONE HE AT Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry S U N sedimentary BLAST FURNACE + PURIFICATION BY ELECTROLYSIS disintegrate ering Erosion eat W sport Deposi an nta tio Tr Ceme tion n PLANTS Cooling Heat mechanical press COPPER ANIMALS Death MAGMA METAMORPHIC M elti n g HALITE RockSalt nitrous ACID LIME CEMENT folderol SLAKED LIME CO2 O2 dodo renderS NITRATES IN SOIL NATURAL GAS AMMONIUM NITRATE N2 ELECTROLYSIS OF SOLUTION HABER bear on AMMONIA NITRIC ACID fertiliser CO AL PETROLEUM COKE total heat Fuel CHLORINE Water treatment SODIUM HYDROXIDE Soap. BLEACH FUEL +or ELECTRICITY FRACTIONAL distillation ALKENES GAS PETROL NAPHTHA KEROSINE diesel engine LUBRICATING OIL FUEL OIL BITUMEN gap PLASTICSStudy and revision skills The glossary words are important Chemistry can be said to have a linguistic process of its own. As for the other sciences, there are special terms that need to be understood and remembered an atom is not the same thing as an ion or a molecule. There are also some words that have a different slant on their meaning in chemistry. For example, saying that ethanol is volatile does not mean that it is about to bollock out, simply that it evaporates easily. Throughout the textbook, you will find words that have been highlighted in red bold type.It would be useful to make a note of these and make sure that you are clear about their meaning. A glossary of these important chemical terms is also provided at the end of the book. The sa me glossary is also provided on this CD. If your first language is not side of meat and possibly even if it is it would be useful to keep your own chemical phrase book to help you to learn and understand the terms used in this subject. This should help you to understand questions clearly and not get tied up in perplexing waffle in your answers. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Study and revision skills 13